He transformed the entertainment industry for men by his innovative publication, which eventually turned into a multi-million enterprise, and whose success did not go without the attention of the future president of the United States Donald Trump .
Cheerful mood dear reader! Today, we will talk about one of the most recognizable global brands in the history born in the country of the star-striped flag. Not much deepening, we know the founder, the birth, ups and downs of the brand and interesting facts.
Birth of the founder of the brand. Education.
Name of our hero Hugh Hefner.
Producer, Illustrator, entrepreneur, journalist, chief editor of the magazine created by him .
The founder of the brand born on April 9, 1926 in Chicago, was the eldest of two sons born from Grace Caroline and Glenn Lucius Hefner. Mother worked as a teacher, father - accountant. Full intelligent people, besides, were Protestants. Grace wanted the Son to become a missionary. Ultimately, he became, but very peculiar And far from the joy of the mother.
Instead, he distinguished himself with his extracurricular activities. In college, Hefner became president of the student council and founded the newspaper - the early sign of his journalistic talents .
And then he comes up with a comic called "School Overlook", whose main character was he himself. Hero-handsome He surrounded the crowd of the girl, made the center of attention of the whole school .
He married - experienced a shock. Career.
The path to the empire he began with a copywriter. In January 1951, he got a job for Weekly salary $ 60 in a male journal ESQUIRE, founded in 1933, where Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald were printed.
After 2 years, when Esquire began to translate his office in New York, he asked for five $ salary. The leadership of him politely sends, to which he meets reciprocity, Refuses to move and decides to publish your own male magazine.
I published a magazine thanks to a 1000 $ dignified. Start History Brand.
Convinced that there is a need for a more frank male journal, our hero alone is driving to start their own edition. To launch the project, the young publisher assembled 8,000 $: friends and families, including 1000 $ Mother and Kate's brother and $ 600, reversed from the laid furniture.
A young man planned to give his brainching the name Stag Party (Bachelor party), but refused this idea as the magazine with such a name already existed.
The magazine did not have the date of release, since Hugh was worried and did not know whether success would be a young man man.
The first room was put up for sale at a price of 50 cents on the eve of Christmas (Puritan America's present) of Stalin's death, when our hero was 27 years old. The room flew off the shelves of kiosks as fried patties in just a few weeks with a circulation of more than 50,000 copies, which was enough to pay for paper and printing expenses, as well as to finance the next release. Flood edition broke the minds of Americans After which the publisher no longer doubted success.
Before Monroe became famous, she was a nobody who is not a famous beginner actress, desperately needing money. Wanting to earn some money, Merlin was exposed in 1949 for Tom Kelly's photographer. Future star received $ 50 per photo session And Kelly sold a photo of the Calendar company Western Lithogram Company. However, less than a year later, the acting career Monroe took off after filming in the films "Asphalt jungle" and "All about Eva". Already by 1953, she became one of the most famous actresses of Hollywood.
In addition to the photo Monroe in the first issue, the young publisher also published a photo of less well-known women, articles about the male lifestyle, a fictional story about the detective Sherlock Holmes and much more. The time Playboy was truly innovative to market: for the first time in the history of Puritan America, controversial , Sexual themes and photos of Nude were in the center of attention.
For many, the magazine turned out to be welcome antidote from the sexual restrictions of that era. And for those who accepted him for the pornographic publication, Playboy soon diluted Content thoughtful, courteous articles.
This adventurous solution was the potential or create, or to break the Playboy from the very beginning. Hefner definitely knew that it was a business decision "all or nothing". He made a bet on the shock and won .
Brand logo. Who is the author?
Although Hugh Hefner also played a major role in creating a brand Playboy, still not he came up with a logo . Designer Arthur Paul drew a stylized rabbit profile for the second release of Playboy.
Our hero wanted to distinguish his magazine from most other male publications, the target audience of which were lovers of outdoor activities. He decided that his magazine would be published for a cosmopolitan, intellectual man and show frank sexual images.
Speaking about why the rabbit chose, Hugh said, because the rabbit in America is of sexual meaning. The choice of color in the logo was explained by the fact that a solid black is a good suit - transfers luxury, professionalism and class. The owner of the brand said that There has never been necessary to paint the logo in complex colors. : Black color in the best ways the image of the magazine.
The popularity of the brand logo. Men on the cover - why?
In addition to the cover, the brand logo was also located on a variety of other goods: from lighters to T-shirts. In fact, their sale was and remains the main source of company income. And the popularity and fame Rabbit Playboy comes with Bugs Bunny.
In the 1950s, eared even was the emblem of the Squadron of Fighters of the US Navy .
Golden brand time. Angry with a dream.
In the 1960s, Hugh is becoming a kind of media character Playboy in a sophisticated bathrobe and a tube - an image of a relaxed, successful man who combines everything that can afford a relaxed person and Starikovsky craving for comfort.
Since the increased popularity of the Playboy brand attracted the attention of the general public, our hero gladly took over the role of a charismatic personality, a champion of the sexual revolution of the 60s
Brand founder scandals. Problems and cuts.
But the success of Hefner did not cost without scandals. In 1963, he passed the trial after In the next issue there were photos of Nude Hollywood actress, minor Jane Mansfield . Unfortunately, or fortunately, the jury did not bring an accusatory verdict - on the process ended.
By 1971, an amateur surrounded himself with young, beautiful women Total brand in Playboy Enterprises large corporation . And the circulation of one of the most popular magazines raised to 7 million pieces per month, earned $ 12 million in 1972 in the mid-1970s the magazine experienced difficult times. A recession and Brand Playboy began to lose the circulation, faced with the competition of the Male journal Penthouse under the leadership of Bob Guccion. Hugh Hefner wanted to correct the situation, printing images of more frank women. But a number of advertisers have opposed to this and the circulation fell even more . To reduce costs, a man refused unprofitable clubs, hotels and reduced media projects.
Despite this constellation of beauties, the publication was criticized . The feminist Gloria Stein in 1963, under the guise of the waitel, conducted an investigation into the oppression and operation of women in the empire of an amateur to smoke the tube.
In October 2015, the brand leadership announced a reboot. Director of Content of Corey Jones reported New York Times that he and Hefner agreed to stop using photo women nude . It was part of a strategic plan: to become a serious magazine, attract more advertisers and provide the best places in newsstands. For the first time in the history of Brand Playboy, in March 2016, the magazine for men went into circulation without naked bodies.
However, the image of a serious magazine at Playboy was a non-national. When the son of Hefner Cooper took the Creative Director's post in 2016, it was announced that the models without clothes will be published. "The nudity has never been a problem, because nudity is not a problem," wrote Cooper.
The end of the founder. Special conditions for heirs.
In 1992, the brand owner for $ 75,000 bought a crypt next to the burial of the famous Marilyn Monroe on Los Angeles Cemetery with the intention of finding eternal peace there. ПRabbits eludient in 2011 gave an interview with New York Times, in which he said:
"It will be easier to perpetuate my story when I'm not there. Because then no one will be angry from what I'm still alive. "
The Playboy Mansion mansion in Beverly Hills heard the last sigh of the founder's Father's world famous Brand Playboy for 91 years of life September 27, 2017
But along with respectful speeches, angry, disapproving comments were loudly sounded loudly, as a dirty stories associated with perversions, drugs and pedophilia.
Hugh Hefner stood at the helm of 64 and Left 35% of Playboy brand owned by his heirs .
In addition, part of the state was inherited by charitable organizations and university of Southern California.
Later it turned out that The owner of the world famous brand left in his will concrete conditions for heirs : If any of them becomes physically or psychologically dependent on drugs or alcohol, on the trustees is entrusted with the right to suspend payments.
According to US Weekly, according to the points of the marriage contract, the young wife, 1986 of birth (on which he married 5 years before his death), Crystal Harris did not receive an inheritance. She could only rely on Hefner's house purchased to her for $ 5 million and decorations.
Plans of the new leadership to abandon the old, kind paper magazine.
In 2018, The Wall Street Journal wrote about the Playboy Enterprises Manual Briefing. There was declared About possible termination Print Male magazine in paper The form in favor of the World of Playboy.
This was explained by the fact that The classic magazine has ceased to make a profit by reducing the circulation several times Unlike World of Playboy, which a year has previously brought a significant part of income.
Also, it was also written about the intention of the leadership to continue to transfer the right to use the logo and the name of the Playboy brand in the marking of various products and in the name of clubs, casino and so on.
- The very first issue of the magazine is currently estimated at 3.000 $.
- At the beginning of the seventies, the number of Braille's relief-point tactile font was printed. There was no pictures in this room.
- The magazine is officially prohibited in some Asian and Muslim countries.
- Sale of magazines in 2017 brought losses at $ 7 million . The Wall Street Journal wrote about this.
On this story is finished.
The next our conversation will be about the brand-record holder, born under the flag "Old Glory".
With you was History Brand . COME AGAIN.
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Playboy ("Playboy") - an erotic magazine for men, published since 1953 Hugh Hefner and his colleagues, grew up at Playboy Enterprises publishing house, whose activities extend to many fields of media business for adults. In addition to the magazine in the US, magazines are issued in various languages throughout the world. Russian version of the magazine has been published since 1995.
By the spring of 1953, Hugh Hefner - a graduate of the Faculty of Psychology of the University of Illinois 1949, who worked at Chicago in Esquire magazine, began to think about creating his magazine for the men he was going to call Stag Party (Bachelor party). He founded the HMH Publishing Corporation Compassion and hired his friend Eldon Sellers to search for investors. Hefner eventually assembled a little over 8,000 dollars, including her brother and mother.
For the publishing case, Heefner pulled from childhood - he organized the release of the wall newspaper, which was equipped with cartoons, drew cartoons in the army for whole days, and after studying at the Art Faculty of Illinois University worked in the Advertising Department of the Esquinsa Magazine.
In December 1953, the first issue of Playboy magazine was published. On his cover, the release date was not indicated, since Hefner was not sure that the second number would see the light. A photograph of Marilyn Monroe was posted on the reversal and cover of the first issue. It is worth noting, Hefner simply used Monroe's photos, especially for Playboy she never posted.
The first Playboy number had a circulation of 53,991 copies, it was sold out in a few weeks at a price of 50 cents for the magazine.
The first number of Playboy magazine
In 1954, Roman Reia Bradbury "451 degrees Fahrenheit" was printed in the March, April and May rooms of Playboy.
In 1955, Hefner decided to put in his magazine photo not only the movie stars, but also non-professional models. Playboy has published a photo of the "Girl of the Month" (under the fictional name of Janet Pilgrim), which was engaged in the editorial office. The idea that beautiful girls live not only in Hollywood, but also literally in the neighborhood, then seemed revolutionary. The magazine's rooms were bought out instantly, and at the end of the 50s Playboy was already issued by a circulation of 1 million copies. More than $ 6 million annual income only from retail sales allowed Hugh Heffer to continue the topic "Girls of the month living next door" in the new capacity.
After publication in 1959 in Playboy ads offering to purchase a "key from the door" of the Chicago club GASLIGHT, Hefner received about 3 thousand reader responses. And I decided to open your own club. Playboy's first institution appeared in Chicago in February 1960, for the year similar clubs opened in Miami, New Orleans and New York. We paid $ 25 for the "key" waited for a restaurant, bar, jazz and cabaret. Playboy's atmosphere created "Girls Bunny", another Khufner know-how. Men to touch them forbidden. Dressed in tight bodys, decorated with hare ears and a fluffy talent of beauty quickly became a sex symbol of the 60s. In the Playboy "Girl Bunny" was served as a profession, publishing advertising brochures, who received a career growth and earnings to $ 200 per week to serve in clubs.
In the mid-60s, more than 1 million members were already in 30 Playboy clubs around the world, and Playboy sold 2.5 million "keys" in the amount of more than 60 million dollars.
The magazine itself in the 60s became cult. The new successful move of Hector was the placement on the Pages of Playboy quite serious texts, in particular, interviewed Vladimir Nabokov, Fidel Castro, Martin Luther King, Andy Warhol. Circulation Playboy in the United States at the beginning of the 70s exceeded 7 million copies - a record for glossy publications, and the annual profit is $ 11 million. And in 1971, Playboy Enterprises became public - its shares appeared on the New York Stock Exchange. Success made it possible to start the conquest of foreign markets. In August 1972, the German edition of Playboy came out, three months later, the Italian version launched. A little later, the light was alternately seen French, Brazilian, Japanese, Mexican and Spanish editions.
In the middle of the 70s, the club fashion has changed. The public wished to dance in clubs and get acquainted with the opposite sex, and the "Bunny girls" ceased to be worthy entertainment. The popularity of porn films and "decade" PIP shows - Playboy clubs began to lose profits and close. But one institution Playboy brought money comparable to income from the magazine itself. The London Casino, an open company in 1964, by the end of the 70s became the most successful gambling institution in Europe. There "Girls Bunny" lost millions of Arabic oil sheikhs - roulette and poker lovers. The profits received from the casino came, according to experts, up to $ 26 million, and the official annual income of Playboy Enterprises in 1980 from clubs and gambling business exceeded $ 163 million.
Such success was upset by Ladbrokes, the owner of the largest casino network in the UK, and she led a target campaign against the playboy gambling institution. Competitors from Ladbrokes were improving the commission on gambling business, which in the Playboy casino, contrary to British laws, provide a loan. The scandal broke out, and after the proceedings in 1981, Playboy Enterprises was forced to sell his business in London. There was hope for Atlantic City - on the other side of the ocean. Playboy Enterprises, together with Elsinore, just finished building a complex from a casino, club and a hotel, an estimated market experts at $ 140 - 150 million. But the authorities who lived about the London scandal refused to issue a Playboy Enterprises license, and Hophneur had to sell her 47.5% of the business Partners from Elsinore.
In the early 80th Empire Playboy Enterprises due to problems with the gambling business lost almost 45% of the income of $ 363 million shown in 1980. Overalls again transformed moral values. Playboy In the press, Fighters with AIDS and Society for the Protection of Women's Rights. The magazine circulation by 1985 in the United States fell to 4.1 million and soon created by the US President Ronald Reagan, the Misa Commission in the framework of the fight against pornography ordered to sell a number of erotic editions with only specialized counters. The magazine has ceased to distribute in thousands of distributor networks. Hugh Heffer had to sell for $ 4 million the famous 119-meter Big Bunny aircraft - a unique aerobus equipped with a dance floor, a cinema hall, bars, bedrooms for 16 guests and a bed with a hand-made dressing of Tasmanian Oposatum fur, which in the 70s cost him $ 5.5 million in 1982, Hefner dismissed President Playboy Enterprises Dairrik Daniels. And after three years, after the hunt stroke, the burden of the problems of the empire took himself to his daughter - the new president of Playboy Enterprises Christie Hofner.
Taking on the position of president, Christie Hefner found a new sales market for the company. And not related directly with Publishing Playboy. The battle for profit was led to the Playboy Entertainment division created in the 80s, which occupied the promotion of the video product, and later also its own cable TV channel Playboy TV. In Tener Playboy there were before. From October 1959, in the transfer of Playboy's Penthouse, later renamed Playboy After Dark, Hugh Hefner himself advertised his clubs.
But in the 80s other priorities appeared - the popular video was popular. Playboy Entertainment begins to regularly release the video version of his magazine, as well as sign Americans for a monthly $ 10 - 15 on Playboy TV broadcast. In 1990, the income of the new division of the company reached $ 28.1 million on turnover, comparable to those showed a casino, the playboy video appearance was published in the mid-90s due to the efforts of Christhe Hefner to promote international markets. SPICE TV and VIVID networks are added to the Playboy TV cable channel, offering Erotic Igrochi subscribers.
Playboy celebrated its 50th anniversary in January 2004. Celebrations were organized in Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York and Moscow during the year. Playboy also released a limited series of products developed by a number of famous fashion houses, such as Versace, Vivienne Westwood and Sean John.
In June 2009, the magazine has reduced his chart of publications to 11 rooms per year with the United Release in July - August. In December 2009, it was announced another reduction in the number of issues - up to 10 per year with the United Release in January-February.
In September 2015, it became known that Hugh Hefner approved the proposal of the leading editor of Corey Jones journal about changing editorial policy from March 2016: the magazine became more serious and stopped publishing in his printed version of the photographs of fully naked women, as a result of which received a 13+ age rating "; Such changes were explained by the desire to increase the audience of the publication.
In February 2017, Playboy announced the resumption of publications of naked models, starting from the March issue.
September 27, 2017 Hugh Hefner died at the age of 91. Playboy representatives clarified that death came from "natural reasons."
In early 2018, Playboy's leadership considered the possibility of refusing a printed version of the magazine, since his release brought last years only killed. However, in the release of July - August 2018, the reader asked a question whether the release of the printed version will be stopped, Playboy. The answer to this question was unambiguous - the printed version is not going anywhere.
In September 2018, it was announced that since 2019 the magazine will be published quarterly.
Playboy magazine history began back in 1953, when the light saw the first room with a young actress Jin Mortenson on the cover, in the consequence of the alias of Merilin Monroe. The creator of Playboy Hugh Hefner sincerely doubted that the second issue would follow the second - he did not even put a number on the cover of the publication. The journal was literally "on the knee" - the layout of the first issue, Hefner Gleil, sitting in the kitchen of his own apartment, and the money for his edition had to collect "with the world on a thread" - according to some sources, $ 1000 from total capital was owned by Hefner.
From the first version of the magazine name - Stag Party (bachelor party) - the young publisher had to refuse, in order to avoid conflict with the already existing Stag Magazine at that time. The current name of Playboy is obliged to a small firm engaged in the sale of cars in which Hefner's familiar worked. The main "chip" of the new magazine was decided to make a photograph of a beauty on a turn, which the reader will be able to attach to his wall. For $ 50, Hefner bought out his friend, which was engaged in the release of calendars with beauties, a photo of Nickname, then the actress Jin Mortenson, and placed it on the cover. Since the magazine budget has enough only to print, the ads of the new edition of Hefneru had to do. He fell asleep the company for the sale of periodicals by letters, in which she assured that people from Esquire stand behind the magazine. The newly minted publisher did previously worked in Esquire - in the advertising department, from where he quit due to the refusal of the leadership to increase his salary. Only an independent Empire News Co. responded to Hefner's letters. And then the surprising thing happened - at the price of Haldollar, the magazine has developed a circulation of 52 thousand copies. Profit from sales of the first number allowed Hefneer to continue his business.
In 1955, Hefner introduced a permanent heading "Girl of the Month" to the consequence, the first model for which the lady was engaged in the dissemination of the magazine. The idea to publish photos is not a movie star, but ordinary "neighbor girls" was truly a truly revolutionary. It turned out that beauties live not only in Hollywood, they are here, nearby - living and real. Soon income from the magazine allowed Hefnera to open his own club under the Playboy brand. The first institution appeared in Chicago in February 1960, and during the year, similar clubs opened in New Orleans and New York. We paid $ 25 for the "key from the door" of the club (in fact - a membership fee) waited for a cabaret show, a bar, great jazz and, of course, the main "landmark" of Playboy establishments - "Girls Baths". Dressed in tight bodys, decorated with harepieces and ears, sexy beauties very soon became the main sex symbol of America of the time. By the mid-60x, about 30 Playboy clubs around the world were opened, more than 1 million members. The new successful move of Heftner was the decision to publish not only naked beauties, but also serious texts. In different years, an interview with Vladimir Nabokov appeared on the pages of the publication, Andy Warhol, Fidel Castro, the stories of Stephen King, Stanislav Lem and many others were published. Hefner himself in numerous interviews said that he never considered Playboy a magazine about sex, "For me, he was always published about the lifestyle, in which sex is just one of its components. And in general, sex is healthier when it is not hidden and do not hide: why stun society? " In the early 70s, the company's annual profit amounted to $ 11 million, and the circulation exceeded 7 million copies. Finally, in 1972 he saw the world's first foreign language Playboy - the German edition appeared first, a little later - French, Brazilian, Italian, Japanese and so on. PlayBoy-Mania covered the whole world, and the magazine has strengthened in the status of cult. It is this way that we see it to this day - the unstable (as well as Hugh Hefner himself), always relevant classics.