For some reason, many guests of the peninsula who come from abroad and Russia associate the Crimean coast exclusively with the Black Sea region. But Crimea is washed by two seas. Rest on the Azov, for example, for certain categories of tourists is preferable to the Black Sea, and its economic importance is great.
Where is the Sea of Azov on the map
As the map shows, in the north it washes Ukraine - Mariupol, Berdyansk and Primorsk; in the west - Ukrainian Genichesk and Arabatka; in the southwest - Crimea together with a part of the Arabat arrow and Shchelkino; in the southeast - the Taman Peninsula (Russia); in the east - Krasnodar Territory; in the north-east - the Rostov region with the largest port in Taganrog. The Azov Sea belongs to the Atlantic Ocean basin, however, it is remote from it. The Don and Kuban rivers flow into it, as well as many small rivers.
Origin. Depths and dimensions of the sea
The Sea of Azov (as well as the Black Sea and a number of others) is a remnant of the ancient Tethys Ocean. Changes in the relief of the earth's surface due to the movement of tectonic plates and volcanism led to the retreat of water. As a result, the Crimea rose from the bottom, and the oceanic formation turned into an accumulation of huge bodies of water.
The map of the surroundings does not allow one to understand this at once, but the Sea of Azov is a geographical record holder in several respects. It is the smallest on the planet - it is twice as large as even the Aral, which is an ordinary salt lake. Azov is also the shallowest - the average depth is less than 8 m, and the maximum depth is 13.5 m. Finally, it is farther than others from the ocean, and for this reason it has a minimum salinity.
The origin of its name has not been precisely established, and there are so many versions that you can get confused. Descriptions of the reservoir were already made by the ancient Greeks, and the medieval colonizers of the Crimea, the Genoese, began to draw up its first maps.
The total area of the water surface of the sea is 37800 sq. km, and the length of the coastline is 1472 km. The bottom relief is almost flat, with two insignificant underwater ridges; almost half of the perimeter falls on diving less than 10 m. There are islands and spits here - there are a little less than 108 square meters. km. We are talking about the Arabat spit and the Tuzla island with the eponymous koska, where the Crimean bridge now passes. Part is also called the shallow muddy Sivash Bay, often referred to as the Rotten Sea.
The Kerch Strait connects the Sea of Azov with the Black Sea, making it an important transport route not only for Russia. On the coast there are such significant ports as the Ukrainian Mariupol and the Russian Taganrog. Oil fields are being developed in the water area.
The Azov Sea has low salinity due to the many rivers flowing into it. On average, this figure is 10 ppm, but the level is very heterogeneous - from almost complete desalination near the mouth of the Don to 11.5 units at the entrance to the Kerch Strait. It also fluctuates significantly depending on the flow of river sources, and also due to the regulation of large rivers (construction of canals and power plants). In recent years, there has been a tendency towards an increase in the salt content in water.
Due to the shallowness of the Sea of Azov, it quickly warms up, as, incidentally, it cools down. The swimming season begins in May and lasts until mid-September, and in the high season the water temperature reaches +28 degrees. But in winter it often freezes, especially off the coast, which greatly complicates navigation. Summer weather here is usually sunny, moderately hot, but in winter there are quite strong storms, especially closer to the strait.
The flora and fauna of the Azov Sea
The Azov Sea is relatively poor in flora and fauna. In total, scientists count about 200 species of living organisms in it (for comparison, in the Black Sea this figure is 1500, but it is still considered "lifeless"). However, among them there are numerous and important for humans, and low biological diversity sometimes turns into practical convenience.
So, on the Azov beaches, algae are rare - there are just relatively few of them in the sea. But fishermen (both professionals and amateurs) can find rich prey for themselves - hamsu, goby, flounder, sprat, sprat, herring, horse mackerel, mackerel and even such a rarity as sturgeon. Even typically freshwater fish such as crucian carp and pike are often found at the mouth of the Don. Fishing is one of the main occupations of the local people.
Of the large fish in the Sea of Azov, there are the Black Sea katran sharks. But in principle, there is not enough salt for them, and it is completely stupid to be afraid of huge cannibals - they will not swim where the depth seems to them "toy". There is also a dolphin known as "azovka" or "porpoise". It is smaller than the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin.
In recent seasons, jellyfish have begun to appear en masse near the beach areas - transparent aurelia and bluish-purple cornerots. Scientists associate an increase in their number with an increase in salinity. Only cornerot is poisonous, but it is not dangerous for human life.
The coast is mostly flat, the mountains begin only near the strait, to the south. The terrain is steppe. Accordingly, the vegetation is represented by steppe species. In the Crimean Azov region, wild tulips are not uncommon. There are many cereals and spring flowering plants here. The fauna is relatively poor, represented mainly by birds, rodents and insects. Poisonous snakes and spiders are being found, and the latter should be feared more - they are difficult to notice.
Read also a separate post about Azov sharks
Tourists from Russia, as well as foreigners who value camping in deserted places, should take into account the peculiarities of nature - you will have to bring firewood, drink and a shade canopy with you.
Crimea resorts on the Sea of Azov and beaches
On the Crimean coast of the Sea of Azov, there are resorts recommended primarily for families with children. Here are the reasons:
- a slight depression and a gentle entrance, safe for babies who cannot swim;
- high water temperature, excluding colds;
- sandy edges, where it is fun to play, and walking is good for your health;
- favorable climate;
- lack of noisy entertainment infrastructure and entertainment, ambiguous for children's perception.
On the equipped beaches of the Sea of Azov, nudists and other representatives of alternative cultures rarely come across. They do not interfere with adults, but they are undesirable for relaxing with a child. The Kazantip festival, which had a dubious reputation, moved from the Azov coast long ago. Beach activities are also more designed for children - slides, boats, bananas.
Adults will undoubtedly appreciate the rest on the Sea of Azov. True, it is not suitable for fans of secular parties, who cannot imagine a vacation without noisy discos and "star" hotels - all this should be sought in the South Coast. The infrastructure of the resorts is rather modest, but the prices here are noticeably lower.
And the most important plus of the area is the huge area of beaches, which are a couple of tens of meters wide and kilometers long. The available number of local residents and vacationers is hopelessly not enough to turn these spaces into a "fur seal rookery". There are many wild beaches in the Azov region, where you can stay with a tent away from everyone. In most cases, even in unkempt areas, algae are not found, with the exception of Yurkino.
Sometimes it is possible to combine a regular beach holiday with a therapy with mineral mud or water. For such a vacation, the village of Kurortnoye (not far from the Chokrak salt lake) and Arabatka are suitable. With a reasonable approach, mud treatments are beneficial for children as well.
Where is the best place to relax on the Sea of Azov? The town of Shelkino and the villages on the shores of the Kazantip Bay (Pesochnoe, Novootradnoe, Zolotoe) are especially known as resorts. There are other villages popular among holidaymakers - Kurortnoye, Yurkino, Semenovka, Kamenskoye. All of them are suitable for a relaxing time with children. Families often choose Shchelkino, Arabatskaya Strelka or Kazantip Bay.
Kerch is rarely considered a resort city (although this opinion is not entirely true), and it can only be considered an Azov one with a stretch.
Meaningful leisure and entertainment
Although the entertainment infrastructure near the Sea of Azov in Crimea is poorly developed, when compared with the Black Sea, an active and inquisitive person will not be bored on vacation. The excursion program from the settlements of the coastline puts trips to Kerch in the first position, which radically differs from the proposals of other regions of Tavrida (there this direction is not often offered by tourist bureaus). It is worth using it - the former Panticapaeum is an extremely interesting city, it has a lot to see.
The Sea of Azov should also be recommended to those who like fishing. Sea fishing (usually from a boat or boat) is the most popular entertainment here, and the waters are rich in species of fish, willingly going even for a simple bait. In some places it is caught from the shore. If any of the tourists does not have their own gear and floating craft, the Crimeans will be happy to provide him with everything he needs for a modest reward, and even show him a catchy place.
In recent years, the Azov region has begun to attract surfers of all stripes. We can recommend to train here for beginners (after all, the waves are smaller, the more miniature the reservoir is).
But what is problematic to do on Azov is scuba diving. Due to the sandy bottom, the water in it is muddy and visibility is severely limited. Therefore, divers concentrate here only in the Kerch region, where there are more stones. Near sandy beaches and spits, it is almost impossible to discern almost anything in the kingdom of Neptune, and the bottom life there is poor.
Energetic, young vacationers often consider vacations on the Sea of Azov "boring". They are wrong - fishing and surfing are just for sports people. But the glory of the children's resort did not go to this coast of Crimea in vain. In conclusion - an interesting video review, enjoy your viewing!
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The Sea of Azov on the map is a semi-enclosed area of the Atlantic Ocean. The facility is located in the eastern part of Europe. Two countries have on their territory the Sea of Azov - Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
The Azov Sea is considered the smallest in the world. Its maximum depth is no more than thirteen and a half meters, and the average (according to various estimates) is within 6.8–8 m. In the area where the Sea of Azov is located, there are other objects connecting the water area with the Atlantic Ocean. Among them are the straits of Kerch and Gibraltar, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles. In addition, the connecting links are the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas.
Previously, in antiquity, where the Azov Sea is now, there was no water. Filling the water area allegedly began in 5600 BC. e. At that time, the Don River fell into the Black Sea directly in the area of the current Kerch Strait. In that area where the Azov Sea is located, there are different settlements. The names of many of them went on behalf of the reservoir. For example, Stanitsa Priazovskaya and Azov, the city of Azov, which is located in the lower reaches of the river. Don, Novoazovsk and others.
In ancient times, the water area was called different people in their own way. It should be said that the sea was renamed quite many times. Until today, the exact origin of the name has not been established. There are several hypotheses on the etymology of the original word "Azov":
- named Prince Azuma killed in 1067;
- By the name of the "Assa" tribe, which, in turn, occurred presumably from Avestian and means "fast";
- According to Circassian "Uzev", which means "neck";
- According to the Turkic Word "Azan" - "Lower".
Back in the distance I. n. e. In his writings, lifting the Scythian tribes, says about the settlement "Askoki". The name is similar to the word "Azov". It is believed that the modern name of the water area began to be used in Russian toponymy since the beginning of the 17th century, thanks to the chronicler Pimen. At the same time I must say that the original name received not all of the Azov Sea (on the map of Russia near the one of the name of the name, the part of Taganrog is located today). And only by the 2nd half of the 18th century, the name was fixed behind the whole water area.
The history of studying the area where the Azov Sea is, it is conventionally divided into several stages.
- Geographical (ancient), which continued since Herodotus before the early 19th century.
- Geological and geographical. He lasted from the 19th century until the 40s of the 20th century.
- Complex. This period began from the mid-20th century and continues to today.
Claudia Ptolem was composed of the first map of the Sea coast. Ukraine, as such, then did not exist, and the position of the reservoir itself relative to other objects was not quite understandable. Ptolemy installed the first geographic coordinates for the mouths of rivers, cities, bays and capes. Subsequently, Gleb Svyatoslavovich, Rule in 1068 in Datmutarakani, I measured the distance from Kerch to Taman. It was approximately 20 kilometers at a time. Already from the 12-14th centuries, Venetians and the Genoese began to make maps and the location of the Azov and Black Seas.
The area where the Azov Sea is, runs between 45 ° 12'30 "and 47 ° 17'30" s. sh. and 33 ° 38 'and 39 ° 18' in. d. The maximum reservoir length reaches 380 kilometers, and the width is 200 kilometers. The coastline has a length of 2686 km, the surface of the water area covers an area of 37,800 square meters. km (the braids and islands are not included in this figure, which are distributed in the territory of 107.9 square meters. km). In accordance with the morphological signs, the object refer to the category of flat seas. The reservoir is considered shallow water, having low shores of the coast. The Sea of Azov (on the map of Russia it is clearly seen) is quite removed from the ocean. In this regard, the object refers to a group of continental reservoirs. In winter, the Azov Sea can completely or partially freeze. The ice is made in the Kerch Strait. Usually the formation of ice begins in January. In the cold years it can happen for a month earlier.
The place where the Sea of Azov is located is distinguished by a relatively simple underwater relief. In the course of distance from the coast, there is a smooth and slow increase in depths. In the central part of the water area, they reach 13 meters. Here the depths are maximal. The arrangement of the isobaths, which is close to symmetric, is disturbed by their slight elongation towards the northeast towards the Taganrog Bay. Approximately two kilometers from the coast there is a 5-meter isobath. It moves away from the Taganrog Bay and near the mouth of the Don River. In this section, the depths increase towards the open part of the reservoir. On the border of the sea and the bay, they reach eight to nine meters. The bottom relief is distinguished by the presence of systems of underwater elevations. They stretch along the western (Arabatskaya and Morskaya banks) and eastern (Zhelezinskaya bank) coasts. The depths above them decrease from 8-9 to three-five meters. The coastal underwater slope on the northern coast is characterized by a fairly wide shallow water. Here the depths are 6-7 m. The southern coast has a steep underwater slope. The depths in this area are 11-13 meters. The seashores are usually sandy and flat. In the southern section, however, you can find hills of volcanic origin, and in places turning into the leading steep mountains.
The catchment area in the basin is about 586,000 square meters. km. The currents depend on the strong blowing winds from the north-east and south-west directions. The main movement takes place along the coast. Its direction is inverse to the clockwise direction.
Shallow water bodies are characterized by high seasonal temperature variability. In winter, the indicators reach a minimum. In January-February, the values are close to the freezing point. In the southern part of the reservoir, not far from the Kerch Strait, the thermometer rises above zero. The temperature range per year is + 27.5 ... + 28.5 degrees. In the summertime, fairly uniform indicators are noted across the entire surface of the sea - from +24 to +26 degrees. In July, in some areas (for example, such as the Crimea), the Sea of Azov warms up to a maximum of +28 ... +28.5 degrees. The highest temperature was recorded in Primorsko-Akhtarsk. It was +32.5 degrees. As for the long-term average annual temperature, on the surface it is within 11 ° C. In this case, interannual fluctuations are of the order of one degree.
The Azov Sea has hydrochemical characteristics. They are formed mainly under the influence of an abundant river inflow (about 12% of the total volume of water). In addition, there is a somewhat hindered water exchange with the Black Sea. Before the regulation of the Don, the salinity of the reservoir in question was lower than that of the ocean. three times. The indicators varied from 1 ppm at the river mouth to 10.5 in the central part and to 11.5 in the Kerch Strait region. The salinity of the Sea of Azov began to increase after the construction of the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric complex. By 1977, the average indicators had increased to 13.8 ppm, in the Taganrog Bay the figures were slightly lower - 11.2. During relatively high humidity, a rapid decrease in salinity was observed. It was at that time 10.9 ‰. However, by 2000, the indicators rose again, having stabilized at 11 ‰. It should be said that there is little salt in the northern part of the reservoir, in contrast to the area adjacent to the Crimea. The Sea of Azov (a map showing the location of the facility is presented below) in this area is rich in self-precipitated salt. It has been mined since ancient times. Until the end of the 19th century, the salt from this site provided almost half of the needs of Russia. The salinity of water reaches the highest value in solution - the brine of Sivash and other lakes. This is due to intense evaporation from the water surface in summer. All of these hypersaline areas are large renewable deposits of mineral salt for which the Sea of Azov is known. Russia, having these objects, provides itself with a significant amount of this mineral. Due to the connection with the sea, the composition of their brine is similar to that of sea water. Sulphates and chlorides of magnesium and sodium are predominantly present in the brine.
The Azov Sea is characterized by low transparency. It is different at every season and in different areas. Indicators range from 0.5 to 8 meters. Low transparency is mainly due to the influx of a large amount of turbid river waters, rather rapid stirring up of bottom silts during water waves, as well as the presence of planktonic masses in the reservoir. The lowest rates are observed in the Taganrog Bay. There, the transparency is in the range of 0.5-0.9, in rare cases - 2 meters. The water in this area can change its color from greenish-yellow to brownish-yellow. In the central part of the reservoir, due to the great depths and under the influence of the Black Sea currents, the transparency can range from one and a half to two and a half to eight meters. Here the water is greenish-blue. An increase in transparency occurs almost everywhere in the summer. And in some areas, due to the rather rapid development of the smallest animals and plant organisms in the upper layers, the indicators drop to zero. At the same time, the water becomes bright green. This phenomenon is called "sea bloom".
Azov sea is the shallowest on planet Earth. It washes only two states and is one of the most sought-after regional resorts for the whole family. Due to the shallow depth, you can come with children even in early May. Despite the relatively average development of the tourist infrastructure, in comparison with the Black Sea and western resorts, the popularity of the sea is increasing every year.
Sea of Azov: description, photo, video
The Azov Sea in the Rostov region has a very modest size. Its width does not exceed 200 kilometers, and its length varies within 380. The total length of the coastline is 2,686 kilometers, and the area is 37,800 thousand square kilometers, excluding islands and spits. The maximum depth of the reservoir reaches 13.5 meters, and the average depth is about 8 meters. Many millennia ago, there was no water on this territory. Only in about 5600 BC the sea area familiar to today began to form.
The Sea of Azov had many names and was renamed several times. The origin of the current name is not known for certain. According to one version, Scythian tribes lived in the vicinity of the reservoir. Their settlement was called "Ahsoki", which is similar to "Azov". The Sea of Azov is remote from the World Ocean, therefore it belongs to the class of continental water bodies. In the cold season, it partially, and sometimes completely, freezes.
The bottom relief of the reservoir is quite simple. The increase in depth is slow and smooth. The deepest part is concentrated in the center of the sea. There are also hills at the bottom. Two of them are stretched in the western direction - the Morskaya and Arabatskaya banks, and one in the eastern direction - Zhelezinskaya. The northern coast is characterized by wide shallow waters. Almost all the shores are flat and sandy, except for the south, where hills are common.
One of the characteristic features of the reservoir is the large indented coastline. Sandbanks, small islands, spits and floodplains - all this can be found walking along the Sea of Azov. Photos of these places are mesmerizing. The largest spits are in the north - Berdyanskaya, Krivaya, Belosaraiskaya and Obitochnaya. Among the islands, the largest are Biryuchiy, Sandy and Turtle. The latter was created artificially by order of Peter the Great.
Panoramas of the Azov Sea
Where is the Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov stretches on the European section of the Eurasian continent, next to Ukraine and the Russian Federation.
Where is the Sea of Azov :
- Kherson, Zaporozhye and Donetsk regions - Ukraine.
- Krasnodar Territory, Crimea Autonomous Republic, Rostov Region - RF.
- Trade ports - Taganrog, Mariupol, Yeysk.
Coordinates of the Sea of Azov on the map:
- northern latitude - 45 ° 12'30 and 47 ° 17'30
- East longitude - 33 ° 38 and 39 ° 18
Sea of Azov on the map
How to get to the Sea of Azov
The Azov Sea has a good location. You can get to these places by air and land transport. Of course, the most convenient and fastest option is the first. Several large airports are located in the immediate vicinity of the coast:
From Moscow, fly here in about 2 hours. Railway is no less popular and convenient way. Transport hubs are located in those cities as airports, as well as in Yeisk and Taganrog. In summer, a large number of trains run, however, due to seasonality, it is better to purchase a ticket in advance. To the Sea of Azov, the ticket price for a compartment starts at 3800 rubles. The best way to get there by bus is from Rostov. The ticket will cost about 1 thousand rubles.
When is the best time to visit the Sea of Azov
Despite the shallow depths, the waters of the Azov Sea, like the White Sea, are rich in fish. The best biting is observed from March to the end of May. Prices for accommodation and meals at this time are quite low. In May, the air warms up to 26 degrees, and the water - up to 22. In late spring it is windy here, which is very attractive for surfers.
- Spit Belosarayskaya
- Sunset on the Sea of Azov
- Rest on the Sea of Azov
The best month for a beach holiday on the Sea of Azov is June. The weather contributes to a comfortable air temperature and a significant number of fine days. In addition to beach holidays and excursions, tourists can enjoy local fruits and berries. It is hot here from July to August. Also in these months the largest number of tourists comes, which contributes to the rise in prices. The velvet season begins in September.
Features of the
On Azov sea renting a house is not a problem. On the coast there are a large number of boarding houses, hotels and guest houses for every taste and wallet size. The cost of living here is almost a third less than on the Black Sea. A room in a 3-star hotel during the peak season will cost about 1400-2000 rubles. Similar prices apply to apartments.
The Azov Sea is a great place for diving. However, when diving, it is necessary to take into account one feature - poor visibility, here the water is not as clear as in the Red Sea. To admire the underwater world, you need to dive in the morning at dawn. The reward for an early rise will be the remains of ships, many of which have turned into fantastic objects under the influence of mud.
Dawn on the Sea of Azov
Dry air and healing mud contribute to a wellness holiday. On the territory of the Sea of Azov, there are sanatoriums with a variety of health and medical programs. Among other destinations, it is worth noting a good infrastructure for extreme water sports. For example, to practice wind and kite surfing, you should go to the regions of Primorsko-Akhtarsk and Dolzhanka. Most of the beaches on the coast are free.
What to see in the surroundings
The Azov Sea is located practically in the center of medieval and ancient life. There are a lot of interesting and fascinating sights on the coast, a visit to which will dilute your beach holiday. One side of the reservoir washes the Crimean peninsula with parks, palaces and monasteries. On the other side is Taman - an amazing land with mud volcanoes and ancient ruins.
The main museum fund is concentrated in Azov, Rostov-on-Don and Taganrog. Only Yalta with the Livadia Palace, or Krasnodar can be compared with them in the presented expositions. In Taganrog, the collection dedicated to A. Chekhov is of the greatest interest. In Azov, you should definitely visit the Museum of Military History. Rostov-on-Don can be called one of the leading museum cities in Russia.
Those interested in ancient history should definitely look at the ruins of the ancient Greek colony of Phanagoria. It was founded in the 1st century BC. Among the natural attractions, the most interesting are the Taman Switzerland reserve, the Lotus Valley and the Tizdar mud volcano, located in the village of Golubitskaya.
Sea of Azov has something to offer its guests. Dolphinariums, pastoral beaches, kite stations and amazing landscapes. The reservoir can be safely assigned the status of not only family, but also extreme recreation. Good winds blow here, which allow you to catch an excellent wave - calm and nimble at the same time.
Where Azov sea on the map? Rest on the Sea of Azov it expands every year and many tourists are interested in the Azov coast, namely, they start looking for it on the map.
This small pool is located in a secluded spot in the south, dividing its shores into two countries, Russia and Ukraine. The Russian coast is occupied by the Rostov region, the Krasnodar Territory and the coast of the Crimea, and the Ukrainian side is the Donetsk, Zaporozhye and Kherson regions. In general, it will not be difficult to find the Sea of Azov on the map, since it flows into the Black Sea through the Kerch Strait, which is popular with the Crimean bridge. As our ancestors described the Sea of Azov, a clipping from the sailing charter of 1850. А30ВСК0Е MOPE, in ancient times Palus Meotis, lies between 45 16 ′ and 47 І7 ′ north latitude u between 4 31 ′ 30 ″ and 9 1 ′ 30 ″ longitude from Pulkovo (Greenwich meridian) to the east. Its greatest length, from the Arabat Spit to the mouth of the Don, is 195 miles; the greatest width, between Temryuk and the Belosaraiskaya spit, 95 miles. In the northeastern part, it is not very wide, deepening from the Belosaraiskaya spit 75 miles to the east by a narrow bay, of which the smallest width, between Taganrog and the Ochakovskaya spit, 11 miles. In the southern part it connects with the Black Sea by the Kerch-Yenikalsky Strait, and in the depression with the Rotten Sea (Sivash) by the Genichesky Strait. Azov Sea Map
Azov sea (Ukrainian Azov Sea, Crimean Tat. Azaq deñizi) is a semi-enclosed sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the east of Europe. Washes the shores of Ukraine and Russia. The Azov Sea is the shallowest sea in the world with an average depth of about 7.5 m and an area of 39 thousand square meters. km and a volume of 320 cubic meters. km, which is 11 times in area, and 1678 times smaller in volume than the Black Sea. The greatest depth is 13.5 m. The sea is the most continental on Earth in terms of distance from the World Ocean.
It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a long chain of straits and seas, namely: the Kerch Strait - the Black Sea - the Bosphorus Strait - the Sea of Marmara - the Dardanelles Strait - the Aegean Sea - the Mediterranean Sea - the Strait of Gibraltar. The degree of salt content in the water is extremely low, since the large rivers Don and Kuban flow into it, which greatly desalinate the water. Due to the low salt content, the sea quickly freezes over for a period of one to three months (from December). It warms up easily in the spring.
The average annual water temperature is + 11 ° C. In summer, near the coast, in shallow water, the water warms up to + 32 ° C. No strong storms were observed in the Sea of Azov due to its small size and shallow depth. The relief of the seabed is flat. The increase in depth is carried out gradually and smoothly. The deepest part is in the center of the sea. There are also hills at the bottom. Two of them are stretched in the western direction - the Morskaya and Arabatskaya banks, and one in the eastern direction - Zhelezinskaya. Almost all the shores are flat and sandy, except for the south, where hills are common.
There was no Sea of Azov in the ancient world, and the Don flowed into the Black Sea at the site of the modern Kerch Strait. Historians attribute the appearance of the Azov Sea to the period around 5600 BC. The Sea of Azov has been renamed several times, and the history of the origin of the modern name is still not known for certain. For the Romans, the Sea of Azov was a Meotian lake, for the Romans it was a Meotian swamp, for the Scythians it had the name Kargaluk, among the Meots Temerinda (that is, "mother of the sea"), among the Arabs - Bahr al-Azuf, among the Turks - Bahr-y Assak (Dark blue ocean).
At the beginning of the 13th century, the Saksin Sea was called. One of the versions of the appearance of the real name says that near the reservoir lived tribes, the settlement of which was called "Asoki", which is consonant with the name "Azov". In the second half of the 18th century, the name "Sea of Azov" was established for the entire reservoir. The villages of Azovskaya and Priazovskaya, as well as the city of Novoazovsk and the village of Priazovskoye, owe their names to the Sea of Azov.
On the coast and on the spits of the Sea of \ u200b \ u200bAzov, a variety of waterfowl live - geese, ducks, steppe sandpipers, lapwings, red-breasted geese, mute swans, curlews, black-headed gulls, gulls, gulls, mallards. In the water bodies of the steppes, a marsh turtle, a lake frog, a pond frog, some mollusks - a coil, a pond snail, a meadow, crayfish and about 30 species of fish live. The Sea of Azov is very rich in fish stocks, which is facilitated by shallow water, comfortable water temperature and low salinity. Fish catch, per hectare of surface, in the Azov Sea is 80 kilograms, for comparison, in the Black Sea - 2 kilograms, in the Mediterranean - 0.5 kilograms.
The second name of the Sea of Azov is the sea of shellfish. The main representatives of molluscs are heart-shaped, sendesmia, mussel. More than 70 species of various fish live directly in the Sea of Azov: beluga, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, flounder, mullet, tulka, anchovy, ram, vimets, shemaya, various types of gobies. Tulka is the most abundant fish in the Sea of Azov; it was caught in different years up to 120 thousand tons. Each of the 6.5 billion inhabitants of the Earth would get 15 fish from the entire existing number of Azov tulles. In the Azov Sea and in the mouths of the rivers flowing into it, as well as estuaries, there are 114 species and subspecies of fish.
There are 4 groups of fish:
- Fish spawning in river floodplains (anadromous fish) are sturgeon (beluga, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, vybets, shemaya). These are the most valuable species of commercial fish.
- Fish spawning in the lower reaches of rivers (semi-anadromous fish) - pike perch, bream, ram, carp.
- Fish that do not leave the sea (sea) - sprat, goby, flounder.
- Fish migrating to the Black Sea (sea) - anchovy, herring.
Among the Azov fish, predators include pike perch, sterlet and beluga. But most fish feed on plankton - tulka, anchovy, goby, bream. In the 60s. the salinity of the sea reached 14% due to the inflow of the Black Sea waters, along with which jellyfish appeared in the sea, whose diet is plankton. It is also interesting to note the decrease in the number of Mediterranean species of animals and plants in the direction from west to east.
So in the Mediterranean Sea you can find more than 6,000 species of organisms, in the Black Sea - 1,500, in the Azov Sea - 200, in the Caspian Sea - 28, and in the Aral Sea only 2 species of Mediterranean organisms. This fact testifies to the gradual separation of the seas from the Mediterranean in the distant past. Mullet, herring and anchovies go from the Black Sea to the Azov Sea for feeding in the spring. In autumn, when the water temperature drops to 6 ° C, the fish returns back to the Black Sea. Sturgeon fish spawn in the Don, Kuban and Dnieper rivers.
How to get there
The Azov Sea has a very convenient location. You can get here both by air and by land transport. The first option will certainly be the fastest. The largest airports are located on the sea coast:
Fly from Moscow in about 2 hours. The most popular way is by train. Transport hubs are located in the same cities, as well as in Yeisk and Taganrog. A large number of trains run in summer, however, due to seasonality, it is better to take care of purchasing a ticket in advance. To the Sea of Azov, the ticket price for a compartment starts at 3800 rubles. The best way to get there by bus is from Rostov. The ticket will cost about 1 thousand rubles.
Today the Sea of Azov is going through hard times. Environmentalists are sounding the alarm, but there are no actions to restore the ecosystem of the reservoir. The main problem is the rise in the salt level of the sea water. The waters of the Don and Kuban rivers are taken for agricultural purposes, respectively, the inflow of fresh water into Azov is falling.
At the same time, salt water from the Black Sea flows through the Kerch Strait. The increase in the percentage of salt immediately affected the fish that spawned in the desalinated water. This problem led to a chain of others. In saltier water, harmful algae, alien to the flora of the Azov Sea, began to multiply. At present, a bleak picture is observed - a massive pest of gobies. Due to the lack of oxygen, which is absorbed by underwater vegetation, the fish are thrown ashore and die.
Now scientists are racking their brains over what kind of assistance should be provided to the Sea of Azov. It is foolish to hope that agricultural spending will decrease. There are proposals for the artificial narrowing of the Kerch Strait. Most likely, this measure will reduce the inflow of salt water, and, therefore, the unique ecosystem of the Sea of Azov will be saved.
The article was reviewed and edited by Papa Vlada.
The original source of the article is published on website about the Sea .